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2018年4月湖北自考英语(二)阅读理解翻译辅导(3)

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Euthanasia: For and Against

"We mustn't delay any longer … swallowing is difficult … and breathing, that's also difficult. Those muscles are weakening too … we mustn't delay any longer."These were the words of Dutchman Cees van Wendel de Joode asking his doctor to help him die. Affected with a serious disease, van Wendel was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there was no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating.

Van Wendel's last three months of life before being given a final, lethal injection by his doctor were filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands. The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is shown, it starts a nationwide debate on the subject.

The Netherlands is the only country in Europe which permits euthanasia, although it is not technically legal there. However, doctors who carry out euthanasia under strict guidelines introduced by he Dutch Parliament two years ago are usually not prosecuted.

The guidelines demand that the patient is experiencing extreme suffering, that there is no chance of a cure, and that the patient has made repeated requests for euthanasia. In addition to this, a second doctor must confirm that these criteria have been met and the death must be reported to the police department.

Should doctors be allowed to take the lives of others? Dr.Wilfred van Oijen, Cees van Wendel's doctor, explains how he looks at the question:"Well, it's not as if I'm planning to murder a crowd of people with a machine gun. In that case, killing is the worst thing I can imagine. But that's entirely different from my work as a doctor. I care for people and I try to ensure that they don't suffer too much. That's a very different thing."

Many people, though, are totally against the practice of euthanasia. Dr. Andrew Ferguson, Chairman of the organisation Healthcare Opposed to Euthanasia, says that "in the vast majority of euthanasia cases, what the patient is actually asking for is something else. They may want a health professional to open up communication for them with their loved ones or family - there's nearly always another question behind the question."

Britain also has a strong tradition of hospices - special hospitals which care only for the dying and their special needs.

Cicely Saunders, President of the National Hospice Council and a founder member of the hospice movement, argues that euthanasia doesn't take into account that there are ways of caring for the dying. She is also concerned that allowing euthanasia would undermine the need for care and consideration of a wide range of people: "It's very easy in society now for the elderly, the disabled and the dependent to feel that they are burdens, and therefore that they ought to opt out. I think that anything that legally allows the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable."

Many find this prohibition of an individual's right to die paternalistic. Although they agree that life is important and should be respected, they feel that the quality of life should not be ignored. Dr. Van Oijen believes that people have the fundamental right to choose for themselves if they want to die: "What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people haven't the right. And that when people are very ill, we are all afraid of their death. But there are situations where death is a friend. And is those cases, why not?"

But "why not?" is a question which might cause strong emotion. The film showing Cees van Wendel's death was both moving and sensitive. His doctor was clearly a family friend; his wife had only her husband's interests at heart. Some, however, would argue that it would be dangerous to use this particular example to support the case for euthanasia. Not all patients would receive such a high level of individual care and attention.

安乐死:赞同还是反对

"我们再也不能耽误了,……我难以咽下食物……呼吸也有困难……,浑身疲乏无力,……不要再拖了。"荷兰人齐斯?范?温德尔临死前请求医生帮助他一死了之时说了这番话。

他因身患重病,说话已经不很清楚,他知道自己毫无康复的希望了,而且病情正在迅速恶化。在接受医生注射那致命的最后一针之前,范?温德康最后三个月的生活被拍成了电影,去年在荷兰的电视台首次播出。此后,有20个国家先后购买了这个电视节目,每在一国放映,都会在全国内引起一场对安乐死的议论。

荷兰是欧洲唯一的允许安乐死的国家。尽管安乐死在技术上还不具有合法性,但如果医生按照两年前荷兰议会制定的议案的严格指导原则实施用安乐死,但如果医生按照两年前荷兰议会制定的议案的严格指导原则实施用安乐死,通常是不会受到法律的追究的。这些指导原则规定,当病人极度痛苦,没有治愈的可能,而且一再要求的情况下才能实施安乐死。另外,还必须有第二位名医生证实已经符合上述条件,并且要向警察机关报告病人的死亡。

能允许医生结束他人的生命吗?齐斯?范?温德尔的私人医生威尔弗雷德?冯?奥依金解释了他对这个问题的看法"哦,这种情况和我计划用机关枪杀死一大群人完全不一样。若是那样,杀人是我所能想象的最可怕的事。但我作为医生实施安乐死和用枪杀人是绝对不同的。我是关心人,我要尽量保证他们不受更多痛苦。这和那种情况完全是两码事。"


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